USGS - science for a changing world

Iron Mountain References

Environmental Geochemistry (USGS)

ALPERS, C.N. and NORDSTROM, D.K. (1990)
Stoichiometry of mineral reactions from mass balance computations for acid mine waters, Iron Mountain, California, In Acid Mine Drainage-Designing for Closure, J.W. Gadsy, J.W. Malick, and S.J. Day, (eds.), BiTech Publishers, Vancouvor, B.C., p. 23-33.

ALPERS, C.N. and NORDSTROM, D. K. (1991)
Geochemical evolution of extremely acid mine waters at Iron Mountain, California: Are there any lower limits to pH? Second International Conference on the Abatement of Acidic Drainage, Montreal, CANADA, v. 2, p. 321-341.

ALPERS, C.N. and NORDSTROM, D.K. (1999)
Geochemical modeling of water-rock interactions in mining environments. In Plumlee, G.S., and Logsdon, M.J. (eds.), The Environmental Geochemistry of Mineral Deposits. Part A: Processes, Methods, and Health Issues (G.S. Plumlee & M.J. Logsdon, eds.). Rev. Econ. Geol. 6A, 289-323.

ALPERS, C.N., ANTWEILER, R.A., TAYLOR, H.E., DILEANIS, P.D. and DOMAGALSKI, J.L. (2000)
Metals transport in the Sacramento River, California, 1996-97. Volume 2. Interpretation of metal loads. U.S. Geol. Surv. Water-Resources Investig. Report 00- 4002.

ALPERS, C. N., NORDSTROM, D. K. and BALL, J. W. (1989)
Solubility of jarosite solid solutions precipitated from acid mine waters, Iron Mountain, California, U.S.A., Sci. Geol. Bull. v. 42, p. 281-298.

ALPERS, C.N., NORDSTROM, D.K. and BURCHARD, J.M. (1992)
Compilation and interpretation of water-quality and discharge data for acidic mine waters at Iron Mountain, Shasta County, California, 1940-91, U.S. Geol. Surv. Water-Resources Investig. Report 91-4160.

ALPERS, C.N., NORDSTROM, D.K., and SPITZLEY, J. (2003)
Extreme acid mine drainage from a massive sulfide deposit: The Iron Mountain end-member, In Environmental Aspects of Mine Wastes, Jambor, J.L., Blowes, D.L., and Ritchie, A.I.M., eds., Mineral. Assoc. Canada Short Course Series v. 31, p. 407-430.

ALPERS, C.N., NORDSTROM, D.K. and THOMPSON, J.M. (1994)
Seasonal variations of Zn/Cu ratios in acid mine water from Iron Mountain, California. In Environmental Geochemistry of Sulfide Oxidation (C.N. Alpers & D.W. Blowes, eds.). Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Ser. v. 550, p. 324-344.

ALPERS, C.N., NORDSTROM, D.K., VEROSUB, K.L. and HELM, C.M. (1999):
Paleomagnetic reversal in Iron Mountain gossan provides limits on long-term premining metal flux rates. Geol. Soc. Am. Program Abs. 31, A-33

ALPERS, C.N., TAYLOR, H.E. and DOMAGALSKI, J.L., editors (2000a)
Metals transport in the Sacramento River, California, 1996-97. Volume 1. Methods and data. U.S. Geol. Surv. Water-Resources Investig. Report 99-4286.

ALPERS, C.N., MAJZLAN, J., BENDER KOCH, C., BISHOP, J.L., COLEMAN, M.L., DYAR, M.D., MCCLESKEY, R.B., MYNENI, S.C.B., NORDSTROM., D.K. and SOBRON, P. (2008)
Chemistry and spectroscopy of iron-sulfate minerals from Iron Mountain, California, U.S.A. Goldschmidt 2008 Conference, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, July 13–18, 2008.

BISHOP, J.L. ALPERS, C.N., COLEMAN, M.L., SOBRON, P., LANE, M.D., DYAR, M.D., and SCHIFFMAN, P. (2008)
Sulfates on Mars: Comparison with Spectral Properties of Analog Sites. Goldschmidt 2008 Conference, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, July 13–18, 2008.

BRUNS, T.R., ALPERS, C.N. and CARLSON, P. (2006)
Distribution, thickness, and volume of fine-grained sediment from precipitation of metals from acid-mine waters in Keswick Reservoir, Shasta County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006- 1377. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1377/

CAIN, D.J., CARTER, J.L., FEND, S.V., LUOMA, S.N., ALPERS, C.N. and TAYLOR, H.E. (2000)
Metal exposure to a benthic macroinvertebrate, Hydropsyche californica, related to mine drainage in the Sacramento River. Can. J. Fisheries Aquatic Sci. v. 57, p. 380 - 390.

DUNLAP, C.E., ALPERS, C.N., TAYLOR, H.E., UNRUH, D.M. and FLEGAL, A.R. (2008)
The persistence of lead from past gasoline emissions and mining drainage in a large riparian system: evidence from lead isotopes in the Sacramento River, California. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 72, p. 5935-5948.

JAMBOR, J.L., NORDSTROM, D.K. and ALPERS, C.N. (2000)
Metal-sulfate salts from sulfide mineral oxidation, In Sulfate Minerals: Crystallography, Geochemistry, and Environmental Significance (C.N. Alpers, J.L. Jambor & D.K. Nordstrom, eds.). Rev. Mineral. Geochem. v. 40, p. 303-350.

JAMIESON, H.E, ALPERS, C.N., NORDSTROM, D.K. and PETERSON, R.C. (1999)
Substitution of zinc and other metals in iron-sulfate minerals at Iron Mountain, California. In Sudbury '99: Mining and the Environment II, Vol. 1 (D. Goldsack, N. Belzile, P. Yearwood & G. Hall, eds.). Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, p. 231- 241.

JAMIESON, H.E., ROBINSON C., ALPERS, C.N., MCCLESKEY, R.B., NORDSTROM, D.K. and PETERSON, R.C. (2005)
Major and trace element composition of copiapite-group minerals and coexisting water from the Richmond Mine, Iron Mountain, California: Chemical Geology, v. 215, p. 387-405.

JAMIESON, H.E., ROBINSON C., ALPERS, C.N., MCCLESKEY, R.B., NORDSTROM, D.K., POUSTOVETOV, A. and LOWERS, H.A. (2005)
Geochemistry of jarosite-group minerals and associated waters from the Richmond Mine, Iron Mountain, California, Canadian Mineralogist, v. 43, no. 4, p. 1225-1242.

MAJZLAN, J., ALPERS, C.N., BENDER KOCH, C., MCCLESKEY, R.B., MYNENI, S.C.B., AND NEIL, J.M. (2011)
Vibrational, X-ray and Mössbauer absorption spectra of sulfate minerals from the weathered massive sulfide deposit at Iron Mountain, California. Chemical Geology, v. 284, p. 296-305.

NORDSTROM, D. K. (1982)
Aqueous pyrite oxidation and the consequent formation of secondary iron minerals, in Kittrick, J. A., Fanning, D. S., and Hossner, L. R., eds., Acid Sulfate Weathering, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Publ., v. 37, p. 56.

NORDSTROM, D. K. and POTTER, R. W., II (1977)
The interactions between acid mine waters and rhyolite, Second International Symposium on Water Rock Interactions, Strasbourg, France, p. I 15 - I 26.

NORDSTROM, D. K., JENNE, E. A. and BALL, J. W. (1979)
Redox equilibria of iron in acid mine waters, in Jenne, E. A., ed., Chemical Modeling in Aqueous Systems, Am. Chem. Soc. Symp. Series v. 93, p. 51-80.

NORDSTROM, D.K. (1977)
Hydrogeochemical and Microbiological Factors Affecting the Heavy Metal Chemistry of an Acid Mine Drainage System. Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

NORDSTROM, D.K. (1985)
The rate of ferrous iron oxidation in a stream receiving acid mine effluent. U.S. Geol. Surv. Water-Supply Paper 2270, p. 113-119. NORDSTROM, D.K. (1997)
Videotape lecture: Negative pH, ultra-acidic mine waters and the challenge of environmental restoration at the Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 97-355, 72 min.

NORDSTROM, D.K. (2004)
Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and the challenge of environmental restoration at the Iron Mountain Superfund mine site, or why not to plug a mine, In GIS - Geoscience Applications and Developments/ Treatment technologies for mining impacted water, Proc. Workshop at the Geological Institute of the Technical University of the Mining Academy at Freiberg, June 18, 2004, Wissenschaftliche Mitteilungen v. 25, p. 125-131.

NORDSTROM, D.K. and ALPERS, C.N. (1995)
Remedial investigations, decisions, and geochemical consequences at Iron Mountain Mine, California. Sudbury 95, Conference on Mining and the Environment, Sudbury, Ontario, May 28-June 1, p. 633-642.

NORDSTROM, D.K. and ALPERS, C.N. (1999)
Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and consequences for environmental restoration at the Iron Mountain Superfund site, California. Proceed. National Acad. Sci. USA v. 96, p. 3455-3462. http://www.pnas.org/content/96/7/3455.full

NORDSTROM, D.K., ALPERS, C.N., COSTON, J.A., TAYLOR, H.E., McCLESKEY, R.B., BALL, J.W., OGLE, S., COTSIFAS, J.S. and DAVIS, J.A. (1999)
Geochemistry, toxicity, and sorption properties of contaminated sediments and pore waters from two reservoirs receiving mine drainage, in Morganwalp, D.W., and Buxton, H.T. (eds.), U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program -- Proceedings of the Technical Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 8-12, 1999, U.S. Geol. Surv. WaterResources Investig. Report 99-4018A, p. 289-296.

NORDSTROM, D.K., ALPERS, C.N., PTACEK, C.J. and BLOWES, D.W. (2000):
Negative pH and extremely acidic mine waters from Iron Mountain, California: Environ. Sci. Technol. 34, 254-258. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es990646v

NORDSTROM, D.K. BURCHARD, J.M. and ALPERS, C.N. (1990)
The production and variability of acid mine drainage at Iron Mountain, California: A Superfund Site undergoing rehabilitation, In Acid Mine Drainage-Designing for Closure, J.W. Gadsy, J.W. Malick, and S.J. Day (eds.), BiTech Publishers, Vancouver, B.C., p. 23-33.

NORDSTROM, D.K., JENNE, E.A. and AVERETT, R.C. (1977):
Heavy metal discharges into Shasta Lake and Keswick Reservoir on the Sacramento River, California - A reconnaissance during low flow, U.S. Geol. Surv. Open-File Report 76-49.

POTTER, R. W., II and NORDSTROM, D. K. (1977)
The weathering of sulfide ores in Shasta County, California, U.S.A., Second International Symposium on Water Rock Interactions, Strasbourg, France, I 42 - I 46.

ROBBINS, E.I., RODGERS, T.M., ALPERS, C.N. and NORDSTROM, D.K. (2000)
Ecogeochemistry of the subsurface food web at pH 0 - 2.5 in Iron Mountain, California, USA. Hydrobiologia 433, 15-23.

SOBRON, PABLO and ALPERS, CHARLES (2013)
Raman Spectroscopy of Efflorescent Sulfate Salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California, Astrobiology, v. 13, p. 270-278.

TANGALOS, G.E., BEARD, B.L., JOHNSON, C.M., ALPERS, C.N., SHELOBOLINA, E.S., XU, H., KONISHI, H., AND RODEN, E.E. (2010)
Microbial production of isotopically light iron(II) in a modern chemically precipitated sediment and implications for isotopic variations in ancient rocks: Geobiology, v. 8, p. 197-208.

Geology and Geophysics (USGS)

ALBERS, J.P. and BAIN, J.H.C., 1985,
Regional setting and new information on some critical features of the West Shasta District, California. Economic Geology, v. 80, p. 2072-2091.

DOE, B.R., Delevaux, M.H., and ALBERS, J.P. (1985)
The plumbotectonics of the West Shasta mining district, eastern Klamath Mountains, California. Economic Geology, v. 85, p. 2136-2148. http://dx.doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.80.8.2136

KINKEL, A.R., Jr. (1966)
Massive pyritic deposits related to volcanism, and possible methods of emplacement. Economic Geology, v. 61, p. 673-694.

KINKEL, A.R., Jr. and ALBERS, J.P. (1951)
Geology of the massive sulfide deposits at Iron Mountain, Shasta County, California. Calif. Div. Mines Special Report 14, 19 p.

KINKEL, A.R., Jr., HALL, W.E. and ALBERS, J.P (1956)
Geology and Base-metal deposits of West Shasta copper-zinc district Shasta County, California. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Paper 285, 156 p. plus 21 plates.

KISTLER, R.W., MCKEE, E.H., FUTA, K., PETERMAN, Z.E. AND ZARTMAN, R.E. (1985)
A reconnaissance Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, and K-Ar study of some host rocks and ore minerals in the West Shasta Cu-Zn district, California. Economic Geology v. 80, p. 2128- 2135 http://dx.doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.80.8.2128

Geology and Mining History (non-USGS)

KAISER ENGINEERING (1981)
Iron Mountain Mine Property, West Shasta District, California - Technical Review. Prepared for Iron Mountain Mines, Inc., November 1981, 199 p.

KETT, W.F. (1947)
Fifty years of operation by the Mountain Copper Company, Ltd., in Shasta County, California: Calif. Jour. Mines and Geology, v. 43, p. 108.

PATRICK, R., STANLEY, O.G., JORALEMON, P., WEIMAR, C.W. & BENOIT, R.J. (1956)
Sacramento River, Keswick Reservoir, and Vicinity, Fall 1955 and Spring 1956, Stream Survey Report for the State of California. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 112 p.

PROKOPOVICH, N. P. (1965)
Siltation and pollution problems in Spring Creek, Shasta County, Calif. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 57, 986-995.

REED, M.H. (1977)
Calculations of hydrothermal metasomatism and ore deposition in submarine volcanic rocks with special reference to the West Shasta district, California: unpub. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. California, Berkeley, 200 p.

REED, M.H. (1984)
Geology, wall-rock alteration, and massive sulfide mineralization in a portion of the West Shasta district, California. Econ. Geol. v. 79, p. 1299-1318.

SHAW, P.A. (1940)
Mine tunnel drainage in the Shasta Reservoir area, Appendix E. California Department of Fish and Game Report, 195-200.

WATKINS, R., and STENSRUD, H.L. (1983)
Age of sulfide ores in the West Shasta and East Shasta districts, Klamath Mountains, California. Economic Geology, v. 78, p. 340-343.

Microbiology (non-USGS)

EDWARDS, K.J., SCHRENK, M.O., HAMERS, R.J. and BANFIELD, J.F. (1998)
Microbial oxidation of pyrite: Experiments using microorganisms from an extreme acidic environment. Am. Mineral. 83, 1444-1453.

EDWARDS, K.J., GOEBEL, B.M., RODGERS, T.R., SCHRENK, M.O., GIHRING, T.M., CARDONA, M.C., HU, B., McGUIRE, M.M., HAMERS, R.J., PACE, N.R. and BANFIELD, J.F. (1999)
Geomicrobiology of pyrite (FeS2) dissolution: A case study at Iron Mountain, California. Geomicrobiol. J. 16, 155-179.

EDWARDS, K.J., GIHRING, T.M. and BANFIELD, J.F. (1999b)
Seasonal variations in microbial populations and environmental conditions at an extreme acidic environment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 3627-3632.

EDWARDS, K.J., BOND, P.L., GIHRING, T.M. and BANFIELD, J.F. (2000)
An iron-oxidizing archaeal extreme acidophile important in acid mine drainage. Science 287, 1796-1799.

EDWARDS, K.J., BOND, P.L., DRUSCHEL, G.K., McGUIRE, M.M., HAMERS, R.J. and BANFIELD, J.F. (2000)
Chemical and biological aspects of sulfide mineral dissolution: Lessons from Iron Mountain, California. Chem. Geol. 169, 383-397.

For additional references see:
http://geomicrobiology.berkeley.edu/pages/publications.html

Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology (non-USGS)

CASEY, W.H. and TAYLOR, B.E. (1982)
Oxygen, hydrogen, and sulfur isotope geochemistry of a portion of the West Shasta Cu-Zn district, California. Economic Geology, v. 77, p. 38-49.

FINLAYSON, B., FUJIMURA, R. and HUANG, Z.Z. (2000)
Toxicity of metal-contaminated sediments from Keswick Reservoir, California. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 19, 485-494.

KEITH, D.C., RUNNELLS, D.D., ESPOSITO, K.J., CHERMAK, J.A., LEVY, D.B., HANNULA, S.R., WATTS, M. and HALL, L. (2001)
Geochemical models of the impact of acidic groundwater and evaporative sulfate salts on Boulder Creek at Iron Mountain, California. Appl. Geochem. v. 16, p. 947-961.