USGS Publication Types
USGS publishes and puts on-line hundreds of publications every year. These publications are classified into a number of types.
- Bulletin (B): Significant data and interpretations of lasting scientific interest but generally narrower in scope than professional papers. Results of resource studies, geologic or topographic studies, and collections of short papers on related topics.
- Circular (CIR/C): A wide variety of topics covered concisely and clearly to provide a synthesis of understanding about processes, geographic areas, issues, or USGS programs. The Circular should be aimed at enhancing knowledge and understanding among general audiences, decision makers, university students, and scientists in related fields.
- General Interest Publication (GIP): A wide variety of topics covered concisely and clearly in a variety of formats. Focus is on USGS programs, projects, and services and general scientific information of public interest. The series covers a broad range of topics in a variety of media, including pamphlets, postcards, posters, videos, teacher kits, CD/DVDs, bookmarks, and interactive and motion graphics. Previously called "General Interest Publications".
- Open-File Reports (OF): Open-File Reports are used for the dissemination of information that must be released immediately to fill a public need or information that is not sufficiently refined to warrant publication in one of the other USGS series.
- Professional Paper (PP): Premier series of the USGS. Comprehensive reports of wide and lasting interest and scientific importance, characterized by thoroughness of study and breadth of scientific or geographic coverage. The series may include collections of related papers addressing different aspects of a single scientific topic, either issued together under one cover or separately as chapters.
- Scientific Investigations Report (SIR): Reports in this series are generally aimed at a core professional and non-core professional audience. Scientific Investigations Reports, like Professional Papers, contain significant data and interpretations and are reports of lasting scientific importance, but they are generally more limited in scientific scope and/or geographic coverage.
- Techniques and Methods (TM): Description of procedures for the collection, analysis, or interpretation of scientific data. Includes selected computer programs, including manuals and documentation that represent major models, methodology, or techniques.
- Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations (TWRI): Manuals that describe approved procedures for planning and executing field and laboratory studies, including collecting, analyzing, and processing hydrologic data. Now included in the Techniques and Methods series.
- Water-Supply Papers (WSP): Reports on all aspects of hydrology, including quality, recoverability, and use of water resources; statistical reports on streamflow, floods, ground-water levels, and water quality; and collections of short papers on related topics.
- Water-Data Reports: This annual series documents the hydrologic data collected by the USGS surface- and ground-water data networks. A report is published for each State, Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territories. These records of streamflow, ground-water levels, and quality of water provide the framework of hydrologic information needed by State, local, and Federal agencies and the private sector for the development and management of land and water resources.
- Water-Resources Investigations Reports (WRIR): Hydrologic information, mainly of local interest, intended for quick release. Book or map format. Varied scales. Now included in Scientific Investigations Reports series.
Online publications for California.